Category Archives: landscape

A Plea for the Peace – Refugees Welcome?

Canada’s World Refugee Obligations Met by British Columbia’s Peace River Valley Site ‘C’ Settlement


photo by Picfile /Flickr

All great civilizations have had their beginnings in
River Valleys beside great rivers.
Africa’s Rift Valley remains as the origin of the world’s peoples

The Peace River is one of Western Canada’s Great
River Valleys. Unfortunately it’s position on globe
earth far from Africa’s Rift Valley leaves it out of the
loop of history becoming home to one of the world’s civilizations.
The Peace River’s less than benign climate has not been conducive
to serious year round settlement, although with global warming
this may change. We will just have to let nature take its course.

However the Peace like all the world’s River Valley holds
the elements for sustainable human settlement, access
to continuous running fresh water with an obtainable source of
protein in its fsh and visiting wild fowl ducks & geese. In addition,
the flooding annually of the valley uplands with receding silt & soil
deposits provide rich & fertile plains for growing annual pasture
gazing grasses and woodland forest trees for fuel and construction.

While not specific to the Peace, the description of
North America’s continental evaluation of its
climate modifying physical features as described by writers
Jones and Cushman in the Peterson Nature Series Te Prairie.
I have copied the part of it that expresses North American
evolution much better than this presenter ever could:

“P
rior to the Northern Rocky Mountain uplift the entire
central North American climate had been dominated
by warm moist air masses that swept east from the Pacific from
the Gulf of Mexico. Te rising mountains created a barrier that
blocked the Pacific storms squeezing out most of their moisture
before it reached the plains. Tis rain shadow helped to create
the more arid conditions that favour growth of grasses over trees.

Fossils of camels, rhinoceroses, horses and other grass eating
herbivores unearthed on the plains suggest an erratic
progression. Recent analysis of plant micro-fossils indicates that the
extensive grasslands covered parts of the great plains even earlier
perhaps beginning in the late Eocene Epoch, 35 million years ago.

These early grasslands were dominated by “cool season”
grasses, species that thrive under relatively mild
growing conditions. Te quintessential Tallgrasses, including
warm season bluestems and switchgrasses did not begin to appear
until about 10 million years ago. Even then, forests continued to
cover much of the Great Plains with grasslands spreading during
drier climactic periods, and contracting during wetter periods.”

quoted from Peterson Series The North American Prairie by Stephen Jones & Ruth
Carol Cushman; Houghton & Mifflin
Boston 2004

The warming and drying trend continued for several
millennia reaching its maximum intensity between 8,000
and 5,000 years ago. During the height of this hot & dry period
the prairie pushed eastward replacing forests in parts of present
day Indiana Nebraska, Ohio and perhaps Pennsylvania [and also
North into the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. Te
sands of Western Nebraska[Probably North into B.C. & Alberta
also]. All but a few isolated groves of conifers disappeared from
the Western Plains.
Bos Bison a smaller more agile species than
the great plains, prairie dogs and ground squirrels proliferated,
and Pronghorn populations climbed into the tens of millions.

About 5,000 years ago the Climatic Pendulum began
to swing back toward slightly cooler & wetter
conditions. By the time the first white explorers stepped out into
the grasslands the forests had begun to creep westward filling

the pockets of prairie on the Great lakes region & the upper
Mississippi River Valley [and Northward to the Peace River Valley]

Nevertheless, all of these early travelers marveled at the
expanse of grass that seemed to extend forever beyond
the last islands of forest. Nineteenth-century author Washington
Irving characterized the landscape as being “inexpressively lonely”
and like “a desert world.” Writer Francis Parkman referred to it
as “a barren, trackless waste.” In contrast, nineteenth-century
artist George Catlin extolled a land of “soul-melting scenery…
where I Heaven sheds its purest light and lends its richest tints.”

Whatever their opinions, writers & artists realized that the
Canadian Prairie Landscape as opposed to the settled
Landscapes of Britian, Europe and Eastern North America – it, the
Canadian Prairie remained an evolving landscape. Te BC Peace
River, Grasslands with those of Alberta that blend into the Alberta
is: hidden lakes and wooded rolling prairie lands extend East to meld
into a background of the Caribou Mountains, Buffalo Head Hills &
Birch Mountains complex. East of the hills & mountains lies the
Athabasca River, the tar sands, the tar sands extraction rendering works
& the open pit mines-holes around the Fort McMurray Settlement.

The Peace in the North winds & snakes around
the south end of these Caribou Mountains
and flows into Wood Buffalo, now the home of Canada’s
B o s B i s o n and the endangered Whooping Crane Grus
americana
.
It is the second largest of Canadian National Parks.

It continues to the east where it becomes a series
of lakes at east and of Lesser Slave River flowing
North to Great Slave Lake. It one of the Canadian Arctic’s
Great Lakes that remain from the melting of glaciers that
once covered Canada’s part of the North American continent.

The first attempt at human settlement of the BC Peace
River open grasslands, Alberta wooded rolling land,
hidden lake & small lakes, prairie occurred just after the end of WW1
in 1918-19, was by the Canadian Federal Government. Te Peace and
Alberta lands were called the Dominion Soldier Settlement Lands and
were also subdivided into 10 and 20 acre plots to be sold to returning
veterans and their families at very low prices with long periods &
payment at very low interest rates to Veterans and their families.
There was a minimum of infrastructure, veterans could earn enough
working on roads, gravel roads, settlements sites, school sites and the
like. It was not only other Valleys in Southern BC that were opened
for soldier’s settlements. Whereas not only in other valleys Keremeos
in the adjoining east side of the Okanagan Valley and the adjoining
Similkameen Valley. Te Fraser Valley’s Lower Mainland the program
continued in 1945 for veterans of WW2 in Richmond, the Cowichan
Valley on Vancouver Island, and Vernon in North Okanagan.

The Dominion Soldier Settlement scheme on the
Peace River lands was never very successful in
attracting settlers; it’s harsh Northern winters and remoteness,
probably the main dissuading features. The Alberta Woodland
lake land did prove attractive to settlement to veterans & other
non veterans previously in settlements such as Beaverlodge
where the Dominion Government established a crop and plant
experimental station. See Vic Chanasyk, page 1 of Miscellanea.

Other successful prairie land settlements in Alberta produce
Grand Prairie, Spirit River & other smaller settlements on the
Alberta side, with Dawson Creek and Pouce Coupe on the BC side.

In this Landscape Architect’s opinion, British Columbian
Peace River valley grasslands are ready and waiting for the
settlement. Not for veterans who are fighters of wars but their children
and grandchildren remanent of their families who are victims of wars.

In preparing Site C, that part of the Peace lands
for the damming and flooding, BC Hydro, a
provincial company, has built accommodations for it’s fort’s
employees & prepared the ground for dam construction
to flood Site C. By fortunate coincidence is made ready
to take the first wave of 1000 or so refugee immigrants.

A
start to settle, house & feed the world’s current
great human disaster. Those thousands of children
and families who have lost everything, their homes, family
members, and perhaps worst of all, their country. These people
have lost their place in the world along with their hope.

Our proposition is: Canada through the
United Nations for Our Country
to redeem its place in the world, a place where
hope can return and regain for the war ravaged immigrant, a
place back in the world in Western Canada’s Peace River Valley.

The process could begin almost immediately. BC
Hydro, Peace land owner, a BC Provincial body, could cede the
land & preliminarily preparation land work and existing worker
housing to the Canadian government, who then would give it to
the UNHCR, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,
who would ‘Run the Show’, or most of it. From selecting the
immigrants to transporting them to the Peace, building additional
housing and infrastructure. It would become the one Grand
Canadian Gesture
for humanity. Take up where we left off with
newly funded mandate, for the Blue Berets in Peace Keeping.

Let’s Do it Now!

Respectfully, with due Canadian Caution & Consideration our
two most Canadian traits.

A New Canadian Settlement

* 1000 refugees Settlement Grounds Should Site C not be built as a dam, it’s land
would need to be regenerated, an opportunity for refugees who in turn would be helping
Canada to see with a wider perspective.

Our proposal:

* Refugees to be accommodated on arrival in Canada settled & housed in the Site C
Contractor’s existing large camp.

* all quarters UN operated and managed.

* Refugees learn: by taking training in land
husbandry, Tree Keeping, food and craft
tree management & forest management,
Permaculture; along with learning English, our
Canadian history & cultural heritage.

* PM Trudeau & his Minister of Indigenous
Affairs with Tribal Chiefs of the Peace Region
to meet & welcome the new immigrants

Implementation

Employment

* Team of consultants (-see A Modest Proposal
to follow) to select suitable site C land location
to establish orchards, prairie water
dugout locations throughout site C area lands
suitably contoured to build permanent Refugee
Settlements based on the Mongolian Model. It is
one of many Site C settlement schemes possible
that can be implemented. Ian McHarg model
recommended. Complete site analysis.

* Tree keeper/management family to include 1
male or female adult, head of household, 4 or less
children – can have 2 babes in arms if the head of
house is female.

* Orcharding: Model to have 32 soft fruit &
hard fruit (edible nuts) orchards & Willows,
Corylus/Filbert, pollarding canes for woven
baskets. (elm, hardy elm), willow & garden
stakes & woven wooden fences now fences.

The Mongolian Settlement Model has
the components to provide 1000 refugee families
with sustainable year round food supply via
an adequate and sized family shelter warmed
throughout the winter by our endless supply of
affordable natural gas, passive solar, and chickens
which can be used for food, and also give off
heat.
* to sustain 100 refugee families in construction
buildings followed by a transition to greenhouse
living, and a possible larger Arcology, see
Miscellanea (in PDF at end)

* Each 100 family settlement to have living
quarters:
48 – 4 and 8 block settlements, Each one of the
blocks are either 4 homes or 8 homes, with cross
corridor to entrance, connected to 32 year round
greenhouses. Each greenhouse operated and
managed by 1 refugee family.

Site

Site selection: These writers favour Ian
McHarg’s book Design with Nature, the key
to maximizing the refugee & indigenous
settlements, their numbers, & locations on the
Peace; and Tasmania’s Bill Mollison’s Book,
writings on Permaculture, A Designers’ Manual.

* In addition each 100 family settlement
area includes 32 or more separate Prairie water
dugouts and strings of combined dugouts.

* as the Settlement ground contour dictates
settlement grounds amount 250 hectares more
or less (rough guess by water could be larger or
smaller well dugout.

* Dugout or string of dugout, string of lakes,
drainage ground lake and prairie dugout ground
slope.

* Woodland for fibre & tree wood, hardwood
trees for lumber, woodlands located as shown in
Mongolian Model see miscellanea image of site
and greenhouse and adaptation for Site C.

* Tying together site with sounding lake &
hillside, woodlands, an open prairie, grasslands,
strings of lakes, bands of forest woodlands to
give each Site C settlement a natural landscape,
pleasing visually.

* Restored Landscape – using trees, swales ( a
tree system), ornamentals as well as edibles.


Transportation

* Look to town of Churchill, Manitoba &
Bombadier Company as examples.

* Find ways to include Canadian
communities & companies to provide a
transport system to residents – Bombadier
fleet of snowmobiles, maintenance
teams, crews & staff to teach operation &
maintenance. Churchill, Manitoba to provide
knowledge of polar bear proof snow vehicles;
where they solved their bear problem by
devising safe work and transportation
equipment.

View the Proposal here

A Plea for the Peace

 

Don Hoffmann shares his Peace River Valley Photography

http://www.panoramio.com/user/6401594?with_photo_id=78664438

 

A Garden for Life: Mary Greig & the Royston Rhododendrons by Judith Walker

Published this May 2015, was A Garden for Life: Mary Greig & the Royston Rhododendrons by Judith Walker.

cover-Mary-Greig2

In the summer of 1919, newlyweds Ted and Mary Greig motored from Portland to a small cottage by the ocean in Royston, on Vancouver Island. This became Mary’s home for the next 70 years of her life.

They began a garden, using local sandstone to build rock walls and seaweed and peat to build up the soil. The twins were born in 1920 and two more children by 1925. It was a lean time for the young family.

The Greigs love of the mountains, native plants and gardens led them to meet some extraordinary people, including George and Suzanne Simpson of Cowichan Lake. When the Simpsons suggested that the Greigs purchase all the stock of the Simpson’s alpine and rare plant nursery, the Greigs were astonished- “to think they thought we could manage to keep things alive”.

But manage they did. And when alpines proved a challenge on the wet west coast, Mary quickly focused on the rhododendrons which thrived in the cool summers and the moist winters. The species rhododendrons caught Mary’s attention with their infinite variety of leaves, colours and forms. She proceeded to propagate only the best.

And a tiny nursery on BC’s coast caught the attention of the rhododendron world.

So although Mary is the focus of this story, there are many characters. One cannot appreciate Mary’s work without knowing of Kingdon-Ward’s expeditions, and one cannot fully appreciate a rhododendron flowering in August without following Ted and Mary through their nursery.

The old gate is still there- please, come in.

Canada West Landscape Architecture Book Launch

Canada West Landscape Architecture – 1888-1999

Canada West – Landscape Architecture first printing was 50 books in September 2014.

 photo 1

paradise

Canada West Landscape Architecture is a historical reference book – it’s huge and belongs in libraries and universities throughout western Canada. We printed 50 copies. Any of you who would like to give us $250 to give a copy in your name to your favorite LA Alma Matter or Library, we are offering a complimentary DVD of the book for your personal use and enjoyment.  Over half of the book is imagery from the Author’s own collection of photographs from Western Canada’s natural landscapes and designed works of art and gardens from western Canada’s founding plantspeople.

jekyll
Garden In Memory

This is our story – mostly our firm Justice  Webb & Vincent and our experiences and projects are well covered between these pages, with stories of the founding fathers of this movement: Frank Buck, David Douglas, Isabella Preston, Frank Skinner, Henry Marshall, George Fraser, Ed Lohbrunner, Mary Greig and more are woven throughout the text and photographs, and will be of specific interest to members of the BCSLA, AALA, SALA, MALA & NWTALA. Appendix 4 includes a complete plant list for the Tundra.

Both Harry Webb and John Vincent were artists as well, their artwork is also included. John Vincent currently lives in Parksville. More from Harry Webb can be found through his daughter Adrienne Brown’s 2014 book: Art in the Age of Jazz: Harry Webb and Jessie Webb by Adrienne Brown. Her book is being released and shown Sept 16th to Dec 6th, 2014 :: Exhibition at the West Vancouver Museum.

Clive’s book launch for Canada West Landscape Architecture 1888-1999  will be held in January or February 2015.

patter

sask

coverphoto

CW-LA Job Numbers Appendix

wilbanks

Dr. Clive Justice’s work is documented in this appendix, detailing jobs throughout his career. His firms were the first of their kind and so they got many of the jobs around town. This list offers a look at sites throughout the city of Vancouver, Richmond, and beyond.

Enjoy

http://bcbigleafmaplebooks.ca/blog/Appendixjobnos.pdf

The Three Legacies of Frank Ebenezer Buck, Professor of Horticulture, UBC

Frank Buck KathleenDedication of the Frank Buck memorial garden fronting the library 1946  Frank & wife Kathleen at UBC as Dean of Agriculture and Chancellor present at the awards.

excerpt: The Move to the West: UBC and Point Grey
from: The Three Landscape Legacies of Frank Ebenezer Buck:
the Record and Personal Encounters
by Clive L. Justice PhD FCSLA LmBCSLA,
Plant and Garden Historian
Vancouver, BC, Canada

for full aricle, visit: Frank Buck Legacy Full Article

The Move to the West: UBC and Point Grey
Dr. Leonard Klinck, who had been Dean of Agriculture since 1914,
became UBC President in 1919 after the death of the university’s first President, Dr. Frank Wesbrook. In 1916 Dean Klinck appointed Dr. F. M. Clements to lead the Department of Horticulture. Klinck and

Clements had been classmates at Macdonald College (part of McGill University) and were close friends with Buck. After World War 1 they began a search for someone to undertake the daunting task of landscaping the new campus, “a logged-off area replete with stumps, boulders and blasted craters.” Frank Buck was selected for the job and was appointed Assistant Professor of Ornamental Horticulture in 1920.

The first building on the Point Grey campus, the Science Building,
was a concrete shell in a field of stumps. It was completed with land
-scaping in time for the official campus opening in 1925. It and the four storey building that became the University Library (later named main Library) were the only two campus buildings to be faced with local granite quarried from Haddington Island in the Johnstone Strait (Editor’s note: UBC archives report that Nelson Island, near Pender Harbour was the source, see article ) This light grey, black flecked, extremely hard stone was selected by the architects, Sharp and Thompson and warmly approved in a 1913 report by the three member oversight committee (engineering professors Laird from Pennsylvania and Darley from McGill, and English landscape architect and town planning consultant, Thomas Mawson). It was Mawson who suggested the cheap method for getting the stone to the campus, by shipping it to a jetty at the base of Point Grey, and then by cable railway up the 300 ft. high bluffs to the campus. Before WWI, the use of local stone would have been cheap and feasible, but after the war, the cost became impossible. All campus buildings until after the end of WWII, especially the so-called temporary buildings constructed in the 1920s and 30s, were clad with what was euphemistically called ‘California Stucco’.
In 1912 the logged lands of the Burrard Peninsula between the railway line bordering the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) lands on the
east and the University Endowment Lands including the campus land
at Point Grey to the west, were part of the Municipality of Point Grey.
Point Grey and South Vancouver were both amalgamated with Van

-couver in 1929. When Buck arrived, Point Grey Municipality was also experiencing the renewed growth that had been stopped during WWI. New streets and houses began to appear in scattered subdivisions with fanciful old-country names that had been created between 1900 and 1914 to lure the influx of UK immigrants to settle in Vancouver’s suburbs. Buck and his family found a home in Kerrisdale, the area from the CPR tracks between West 33rd and 57th Avenues west to Macdonald Street.

The Point Grey Municipal Hall in Kerrisdale, built in 1912, was on the west side of the CPR tracks and north of the CPR nursery. The nursery grew and supplied trees for the beautification of streets, medians and boulevards in the subdivisions, and also provided landscape materials for the gardens of the posh prewar houses built in the company’s adjoining Shaughnessy Heights. The treed medians on Osler Street and Angus Drive radiated from a centrepiece park, the oval ‘round about’ called the Crescent. The greenhouses supplied flowers for the downtown CPR hotel on Granville Street, the dining cars of the transcontinental trains, which departed Vancouver every day for Toronto and Montreal, and the Empress ships sailing monthly for Asian Pacific ports such as Yokohama and Shanghai. The nursery site was sold to the Vancouver School Board in the mid 1920s for construction of Point Grey Secondary School, designed in the Gothic Revival Collegiate style by architects, Townley and Matheson, and opened in 1929. A row of very large trees remains on the nursery site, including several Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven), Quercus rubra (northern red oak), Platanus × hispanica (London plane), and one the very few large Sequoia sempervirens (California coast redwood)
growing in the area.

The elected officials enthusiastically promoted municipal growth and
development in direct competition with Vancouver. They developed
effective zoning controls and guidance to ensure planned and orderly
development and the continued exclusiveness of the municipality as a place of residence for white, middle class professional and semi pro
-fessional families preferably from the British Isles. In 1925, the BC
Town Planning Act gave cities and municipal councils the authority to
prepare an official town plan, set up advisory town planning commissions, and to guide the physical development of a municipality. In 1923, Point Grey had passed a local bylaw that said much the same thing and was the first municipality in the Dominion to have an appointed town planning commission. Landscape architect Frank Buck and architect, George Thornton Sharp both served on the commission from 1923 until amalgamation with Vancouver in 1929. Clearly, they had much to do with the orderly development of their
community.

Large parts of Buck’s legacy are the street tree plantings he
initiated in the 1920s: the avenue of Ulmus americana (American elm–his favourite tree) down West 22nd. Avenue from Dunbar Street; northern red oaks along 8th Avenue at the edge of Point Grey Park and on Discovery Street; the venerable London planes lining the diversion of West 8th Avenue into West 9th west of Alma; and the ‘mile’ of gold avenue of tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and catalpa (Figure 2)(primarily Catalpa speciosa mixed with C. bignonioides) east from Alma along West 10th to Kitsilano High School, with their summer blossoms and striking yellow fall colour. Clearly these trees were planted prior to the Kitsilano Diversion that linked Point Grey’s 10th Avenue into Vancouver’s West 12th at Macdonald Street. Other avenues of elms and maples still flourish throughout the Dunbar, Point Grey, Arbutus and Kerrisdale districts. The elms escaped the devastation caused by Dutch elm disease elsewhere in North America, and the Discovery Street park viewpoint remains the best overlook view across English Bay to the downtown and
Stanley Park.

Perhaps Frank Buck’s greatest legacy for Vancouver came from his 1923 appointment by Point Grey Reeve, G. A. Walkem as chairman of the Advisory Town Planning Commission, the first in Canada. One of the commission’s first concerns was the development, landscaping and beautification of public parks and recreation places in the municipality. They sought ideas and expertise of consultants, not from the ‘old country’ as had been the practice before the Great War, but from our neighbours to the south. Buck had probably read or heard about the ‘City Beautiful’ movement that originated in Chicago. It was a good place to start, so the commissioners invited the Chicago firm of Harland Bartholomew and Associates to present their ideas to the commission.Harland Bartholomew appeared before the Point Grey Town Planning Commission and members of Council on Friday July 27th 1923. He spoke on the “Five principal kinds of recreational facilities [that] should be provided in a district like Point Grey.” ‘Children’s Playgrounds’ were to be located on elementary school grounds, then ‘Playfields’ for older children were to be located within a one mile radius of each other. Recreational facilities (Neighbourhood Parks) should be one mile apart and designed for passive recreation with grass, trees, flowers and water (where possible). The recording secretary added a note that “Unfortunately Mr. Bartholomew was not shown the Maple Grove Park” although, at the time, the only water at Maple Grove was a very large, shallow, rock-lined kiddies’
wading pool.

The fourth principal recreational facility was the ‘Large Natural Park of 50 acres or more’, which retained natural features with informal landscape design. The fifth facility combined two elements: ‘Boulevards’, here referring to traditional tree lined streets, and ‘Pleasure Driveways’, a new concept that recognized the potential in the dawning age of the automobile. Bartholomew saw these landscaped median-divided streets as “connecting the large parks (and of themselves giving) a great recreational advantage to the city.” In 1928 when Bartholomew was commissioned by Vancouver to prepare plans to amalgamate Point Grey with the city, he enlarged and extended the concept of pleasure driveways by incorporating these parkways as part of the park and street system for Vancouver.

In 1928, the year before the amalgamation of Point Grey and Vancouver, Buck summed up the role that Point Grey had taken in the town planning movement for the City of Greater Vancouver. He wrote in his self-effacing manner: “It can be inadequately performed in the few pages assigned for that purpose,” then went on to give a good accounting of the contributions the Commission had made in planning the orderly development of the municipality and street beautification and indicated what was in hand but not completed. As an example, under the heading of “Recreation,” he wrote:

“The recommendations of the Commission relating to Parks and
Recreation were presented to the Council (Point Grey) in November
1928, and while as yet they have not been adopted in their entirety, a
number of the recommendations have been acted upon.”

Buck’s planning commission appointment ended with the dissolution of Point Grey, but in 1929 he was appointed to the newly constituted Advisory Town Planning Commission for the City of Vancouver. He served until 1951 and was chairman for two terms during the war, in 1939 and 1941. His volunteer service over some 30 years set a standard for the British Columbia Society of Landscape Architects (he was the society’s first honorary member) to offer themselves for volunteer professional service. The BCSLA code of professional practice now obligates member landscape architects to serve on today’s equivalent of advisory town planning commissions, the advisory design panels, that are now constituted in many of BC’s cities and districts. Buck’s legacy continues in the parkland landscape of lawn and trees, particularly flowering trees that weave broad ribbons of green landscape through our city, including West 16th Avenue, King Edward Boulevard, the Cambie Street Heritage Boulevard and the 100 Canada Centennial maples on Boundary Road.

Although Frank Buck wouldn’t qualify in today’s world to use the title “Landscape Architect” after his name, he was one, nonetheless.
He successfully combined professional garden design and plant arrangement with his teaching of courses in ornamental horticulture at UBC. His Ottawa experience and his knowledge of plants lead to many calls from his UBC faculty colleagues to provide advice and planning of their home gardens, which included President Klinck’s garden on Marine Drive in West Vancouver and the estate garden he designed for Dean of Agriculture Blythe Eagles and his wife Violet at Deer Lake in Burnaby, which included a large rockery and several pools. The City of Burnaby designated it as a Heritage Garden, and it is now being restored with the help of the BC Land Conservancy. Buck’s landscape legacy lives on in Burnaby as well as in Vancouver.

The June 1939 issue of the local magazine, The Garden Beautiful (it ceased publication in 1946), included an article by Buck, Potentialities of Our Coast Cities in which he wrote:

“Today the House alone no longer constitutes a Home,
a House must have a Garden…I attempt a brief discussion on the
opportunities offered by British Columbia cities on the Pacific Coast for building the ideal home of all types…The director of Kew Gardens said of Vancouver that this city had a climate which favoured, …the successful growth of Nature’s beautiful garden flowers. …And is it not true that the two chief cities of this province are especially favoured in this respect? Our Gardening friends may be found in their gardens for nine, sometimes ten months of the year. Where else in Canada
is this possible?”