Category Archives: coast

Arcologies and Linear Cities

Arcology-Linear City pdf

 

Overhead view of Paolo Soleri’s Lean Linear Arterial Arcology set in winter for a seasonal touch. From /www.organism.earth

 

Arcologies and Linear Cities

By Jill Whitelaw

 

R. Buckminster Fuller, inventor of Geodesic Domes said:

Let architects sing of Aesthetics that bring Rich clients in hordes to their knees;  Just give me a Home, in a great Circle Dome, where stresses and strains are at ease.”

You do not belong to you. You belong to the Universe. The significance of you will remain forever obscure to you, but you may assume you are fulfilling your significance if you apply yourself to converting all you experience to highest advantage to others. Make the world work, for 100% of humanity, in the shortest possible time, through spontaneous cooperation, without ecological offense or the disadvantage of anyone.”

 

An Arcology is an elegant design, City 2.0,, City in the Image of Man, City of the Future. Arcology is Paolo Soleri’s portmanteau for Architecture and Ecology. In the allegory presented by Jeff Stein, in his Ted Talks Arcology: Sustainable Hyperstructures he said they found that an elephant is 10,000 bigger than a mouse but that the elephant only needed 1000 times the energy as it was one elegant design.  He says:
This is the basis of arcology, the core of the idea we have for reformulating our cities, elegantly designed hyper-organisms, miniaturized and complex. This is not a reform project, its not about getting more miles per gallons from the automobiles that are separating us in the first place. But reformulating , how we relate in cities to the rest of the living planet, and by doing so in a profoundly dense way , how we can keep it all thriving and alive. We are really at a moment in our culture, the end of one thing, the beginning of another: the end of cheap fossil fuels, the end of a large and wealthy middle class in this country, the end of a stable climate, globally, the end of an idea that we are live humans building on a dead planet. And really the end of architecture and built form that was conceived based on all of the above. With the Cosanti Foundation, we are interested in imagining how buildings, how cities perform, and how as a result of a research and knowledge-based living laboratory, Arcosanti in Arizona, they might adapt and help us to adapt to new cultural and ecological and technological realities, In this moment, the new generation is going to be asked to redesign everything – buildings landscapes, processes, cities and we think this must be undertaken in a what we call a frugal or a lean way. Here’s what I mean, We’ve begun a project 42 years ago now Arcosanti in central Arizona, that is an urban laboratory, about 100 people are living and working there today, but the intent is ultimately to demonstrate Arcology at this place, building a town of 5000 people on just 15 acres of a 4000 acres land preserve. We began with a form, that performs with sun and seasons and sociability, the Apse, a quarter of a sphere, facing south, and shades itself from high summer sun, and gathers light and heat in the winter from the low winter sun.” – Jeff Stein Ted Talk

 

What is becoming of our beautiful earth? By design science we can orchestrate linear cities and allow what already is to remain and focus our efforts on building land bridges to other cities nearby and on route to far away. Elegant design is graceful and works for people and the planet.

Landscape architects measure the contour and plan and plant the trees. Edible landscapes add to this.

We need a conversation to be happening about the development of Canada. It is happening in Senate and Parliament, and in city governments, but going along with the same old stuff. How much is being invested in new energy projects? The NEB should apparently be called the Oil and Gas Board, and a new collaboration formed.

In the up and coming sector, Arcosanti has a new Director and Architect, Jeff Stein since Paolo passed away a few years ago.  Richard Register continues to build Eco-Cities and Eco-city ideas. Jean Jerde follows in Paolo Soleri’s wake building Arcologies (architecture and ecology) worldwide at an amazing rate, while in his Ted talk Gordon Gill takes us on a tour of buildings that produce enough energy to power thousands of nearby houses, the Net zero and then some. Again win win win for us all.

There are ways to solve the energy crisis in BC, in Canada, in the World; many, in fact are going to be what it takes, and there are already so many great examples. Almost all of our energy systems are outdated. A need for clean energy, with the exception of large hydro dams which usurp and flood farmland, often mistaken as clean energy, that much concrete emitting co2, the falls of dams are know, many being removed for good reason in the us; and with Solar we need to keep in mind the lifecycle of the panels – where they are coming from and where they will end up, and look for renewable biodegradable, to things like graphene and plasma, water and wind and less on mining and chemicals.

Fuel cells needed too much battery and mining. They will likely evolve, but the market here hasn’t seen any yet. Geothermal should be ready to go – it is the collaboration with Indigenous communities that we have missed the mark with and it will for sure be needed when planning arcologies.

This is a chat about new energy, new and old ways to harvest energy, which are local renewable and easy to access? These ones are best, with a plan toward what is going to be sustainable, what is going to help the earth and her creatures find balance.which all people on earth need to have right now, and until your country/region is carbon neutral, clean and green we have work to do, and peaceful talks are better than war.  People have rights and a voice.

Canada claims to care for its people. Let’s show that we all do. The indigenous populations have been suffering greatly and a show of human decency (while boosting economy) could be found in large projects such as this. Permanent Culture or Permaculture, ie Bucky Fuller – see quotes above – and other aspects of humanity ask us to look beyond our own needs and look to the needs of others – to the natural ways of doing things.

Two variations on a theme of energy and where to invest in better ways for people: An experimental Arcology, a portmanteau of Architecture and Ecology; with more Arcologies planned if it is believed to be economically feasible ; and/or BC/Coast Salish to BC eastern interior Linear City section of Vancouver to East/Montreal arterial.

The concepts of Arcology are miniaturization, complexification, simplification and duration.  Part of the idea is to focus building and the economy on these houses and arcological cities across Canada/These Northern Landscapes where most people are living on the 49th parallel. Maybe in some years we could move the line up to the 60th parallel, or 70th 80th, or the 65th even and make another train and more housing, with a priority of not moving currently occupied residences and homesteads as much (with a cost of equal reimbursement and agreement if we do need to move a house, dignity, respect for your life and as a native with ancestral hunter gatherer lines.

 

Pedestrian walkways all along with housing – condos, rentals, artist studios lofts, linear marketplace, industrial areas. All passive solar, with utilities on the North side, along with storage and parking lots. Solar on the rooftop if that would be the best solution.

One Billion dollars in building permits were granted by the city of Vancouver in 2017 or thereabouts. Vancouver/Coast Salish’s houses are part of our heritage and history and many now could be preserved, removing only ones that need it. Renovation incentives and subsidies for low income are a start and point to where we are at and how we can find the way forward. By building a linear Arcology across Canada, with crops of solar on rooftops, wind and geothermal in a proximal we can not only build abundance but show respect for families that still rent or own houses in dense urban areas. Demolishing a house and sending the wood to landfill adds to the carbon problem greatly.

In BC we have a new government, the NDP and the Greens could represent a humanitarian and ecological partnership, call it a minority government but it could be We who care, not so much greedy capitalism, but healthy ethical capitalism perhaps. We are in danger of losing the good governments we have helped to form, and according to Elizabeth May in her Stanley Park TED talk our voting system needs to change. PM Trudeau is ramming the pipeline through where people don’t want it to go.  How can he help to create a win/win/win?

These Northern Lands need a shift, and what better than a bridge, that is, more rail across this land. If it could offer transportation  and housing, and economics, it would be a win win win.

Trains provide fluid movement across a distance. A linear city would provide housing, transportation and opportunities for energy harvesting, manufacturing. The huge bonus would mean people being able to travel easily in a day and ship things at a much lower carbon rate than flying across the country.

A row of Gen-set [large] style solar panels along the back of the roof line would provide a good deal of energy, supplying power to these buildings. Extensive farms could be built in the interior greenhouse spaces, or in the surrounding farmlands, which could now be more and more left untouched along with existing perfectly good housing which is now being knocked down for profit; we would all have enough electrical energy, as well as more to sell back to the grid; Government/public and private ownership of windfarms as well as condos and affordable housing for everyone to own.

This mega project could be a great bridge between healthy economics and ecological responsibility.

If Canada chose to build a linear city with 3 underground transportation lines, subway, train and TGV, it would be a big focus on decreasing carbon and using a common method of transportation  across the country, providing housing and a building focus on passive solar, & solar along the top. Like a park with street trees, a pedestrian walkway would span most of our country, bridging East and West, creating Canada-wide cohesion. There is already talk about a Montreal Toronto train, and it could also just go to Ottawa so as to be accessible for councillors, the Senate and all people who wish or need to attend Parliament.

It would be nice for the passenger train to have a view. Thankfully, we already have that, and can continue to value the CP rail line across Canada and use that. Maybe this line only has two underground rail lines. Less infrastructure is good, as it means less cost but more can be much more efficient. A Skytrain across Canada?  We can value what we have, and create something A New that in Vancouver Coast Salish’s case it means we could go right up hastings treetops with a subway, as it is needed there anyway, and connect it with the rest of BC and Canada continuing to Toronto or beyond. The organic bakery driver at Choices mentioned an idea that has been floating around: of making another Vancouver and linking them using something like Elon Musk’s hypertube. Kamloops they suggested, as I was criticising us all for living in the estuary i was calling it, the watershed, I think I meant, all of this land in the delta, around the Salish Sea and up to Lillooet.

 

What are the countries that are leading the way doing?

What is happening in your neighbourhood? We need to develop city 2.0.

A focus on a BC/Saskatchewan To Quebec Linear City concept, with Multi-Use Buildings, shops and services, a lengthened City in the Image of Man if you will. Ongoing residential building especially near towns, filling in between as needed.  Away from the watershed, new Arcological towns on south facing slopes, using elegant design to fulfil the needs of the people.

New Paradigms are needed in our energy systems. Around the world we see much change, which can be harder to spot here at home. Germany and Europe are leading the way, and we need to follow.

 

More thoughts from Bucky Fuller:

A designer is an emerging synthesis of artist, inventor, mechanic, objective economist and evolutionary strategist.”

Nature is a totally efficient, self-regenerating system. IF we discover the laws that govern this system and live synergistically within them, sustainability will follow and humankind will be a success.”

***“. The alternative is a design science revolution… Design science produces so much performance per unit of resource invested as to take care of all human needs.” (Buckminster Fuller)

 

A Modest Proposal

A Modest Proposal
To Use the Site C De-Treed Areas of the Peace River Lands
for Silviculture and Permanent Agriculture

by Clive Justice & Jill Whitelaw

Image/Tuchodi

Site C is now cleared and graded, lying fallow, and awaiting development proposals from sustainable environmental believers & practitioners with vision and initiative. Greenpeace, Sierra Club BC, the Wilderness Committee & the David Suzuki Foundation are all globally active, locally founded, environmental protection offices in our Province. BC is now working together across political party lines with the Green-NDP Coalition to support appropriate eco-sustainable options for our energy.  Let it continue. One suggestion is autumn seeding in Fall 2017, and before the first snowfall with Helio-hydro seeding of winter hardy rye grass, Lolium perenne var. ‘Olds, alta’,  followed in the spring, planting Poplars, Populus trichocarpa in the forest, in swales, woodlots, clumps, thickets along the valley bottom and hillsides stands.

What if the pulp were then sent through a pipeline, perhaps even an existing or approved one, through an extended network of woodchip-slurry pipes? What if it were powered by wind generators or solar all the way along?

These Cottonwood hybrids are selected because the wood fibre makes a long-staple fibre suitable for newsprint, copy, kraft & fine papers, books, periodicals, cartons, packaging products, paper towels, tissues & toilet paper. One in particular, the Crown Zee Tacoma Cottonwood Poplar tree Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray is one of the best.  Another hybrid with very white wood can be manufactured into white paper using little or no bleach.

The BC Society of Landscape Architects / BCSLA’s land management, professional commitment that entails a full understanding of each of the provinces tree species palette [species of conifer & deciduous]: specifications for arrangement of stands of trees for forests, copses,  3, 5 or 7 tree clumps, lone tree landscapes,  and edges. The lone tree, for example: fall colour, density of colour, size, scale, how it fits into the landscape, into the meadow.  Or,  for example, initial planting of a temporary landscape of introduced different Populus species which will be harvested and made into pulp.

What if this Pipeline linked to the to existing operational processing mills, and even closed mills & new paper and pulp mills up and down the BC Coast & Islands: Prince Rupert, the new Kitimat mill,  the existing mills in New Westminister Nanaimo, the Albernis, Crofton Cambell River; and mills closed, mothballed or contemplated in process of being built or planned, throughout Pacific Northwest, our neighbours to the South: the mills in Everett, Tacoma, Idaho, Portland, etc.? A Pulp and Paper Pipeline for a myriad of Paper Products, serving not only our country,  Canada, but also the rest of the world with our forest resources, technology & experience. Canada has more of this resource than any other part of the world.

We were so distracted by gas, drilling, fracking, LNG, bitumen, and extracting oil and gas from our Canadian prairie, Arctic & subarctic surface lands ruining, destroying & laying waste to our Northern Tundra surface landscape. We should have been ashamed but instead we buried them! Canadians ‘shilly-shally’ on this issue. We want to trust our government to make the right choices, to face up to the fact that fossil fuels, like oil, are carcinogenic and non-renewable. The future of our world ought to remain pristine, natural and beautiful for 7 generations. We have a lot of bio-remediation to get this world back in shape after the promise of the ‘American Dream’.

Each region has its own micro climate, species and visual landscape. What is needed is an Aesthetic, Education and Management Group for deliberating and guiding reforestation and sustainable harvesting.  The BCSLA working group with the region’s tree and resource experts, the BC Forestry Service (BCFS), UBC Silviculture, SFU Resource & Environmental Management, local Agronomists, Indigenous Land Management and Permaculture farmers to set planting standards for spacing and species, for the planting and maintaining of Pulp Tree Forests, clear-cuts, other forests, copses and woodlots, thickets and hedgerows, lone tree aesthetic landscapes, plantings by the rivers, and pasture feeding lands for wildlife.

A great practice would be to modify the arable Peace River Valley into grass hillsides, and rolling slopes with a series of berms and swales along contours, where trees are planted. Debris such as leaves collect in the swales to support the tree crops, as well as rainfall or water released from small earth dams or bodies of water above and channeled into them. This aids retaining the Beauty of our Landscape by inter-cropping our fast growing trees with nitrogen fixing trees and plants, cold-hardy and useful vegetation, cash crops, native plants,  edge and companion plants for pest management, wildlife foraging, flowers for bees, creating a poly-culture rather than a mono-culture, all eventually successioned by replanting a natural selection of Canadian trees of that region.

This land has been disrupted, and needs to regain biodiversity and balance. Mature forests have mushrooms and shade loving groundcovers, shurbs and native wildflowers under the tree canopy. The more mature the forest the more there is in it.  Paul Stamet’s has a product called the LifeBox, a box filled with our Pacific Northwest trees as well as mushroom spores.  Stamets, from Oregon, also migrates through this region and may even help us design a very local LifeBox. Trees and mushrooms make up the bottom most and top most elements of a forest. In between are the other layers of the forest, such as shrubs and vines, which if they were native edibles such as small berries, native potatoes like plants which could be highly productive for edible species and wild-crafting the commons and allowing even more opportunity for a balanced economy for all Canadians.

There is a need for improvement throughout the Peace Valley lands & unflooded bottom lands from just below the Site 2 dam structure to just below the site C area with the reservoir area, and the surrounding areas to the natural boundary at the BC-Alberta boundary. The top water line to the lower water line we can’t landscape, but all of the lands around and above, that will be these gardens. Plant on cleared areas or in valleys on rolling terrain in plantations or in designated large farm areas.

Different ornamental gardens could be added. For celebrating Canada’s Confederation of 150 years,  for example, honouring pioneers, explorers, settlers and natives could include Landscape Heritage gardens from England’s settlers, the Garden in Memory (CWLA, CLJ Chapter 11, 2013.) which they brought to Canada to live in this harsh landscape as pioneers, learning from Canada’s landscape and plants and first peoples to survive.  To celebrate this vast tract of land in good commemorate & try to reflect the made improvements. Capability Brown, was an English landscape architect. He is remembered as “the last of the great English 18th century artists to be accorded his due”, and “England’s greatest gardener”. He designed over 170 parks, many of which still endure. He was nicknamed “Capability” because he would tell his clients that their property had “capability” for improvement.” (wiki) Each park farm or garden to contain heritage plants, such as trees, flowers and ornamentals developed by Canadian horticulturists, Frank Skinner of Dropmore, Manitoba for roses and Lilacs, and Isabella Preston of Dominion Agriculture for Lilacs and Lillies, and the ornamental Crabapples, Malus niedzwetzkyana hybrids.

With the onset of computer technology everybody thought we were going to a paperless society, when in fact we could become the greatest paper, wood, fibre society ever.  Look around, there are more newspapers than ever before, we still use and read books, give birthday cards, send and receive mail, ship locally and  in cardboard boxes, ad infinitum. Canada, especially BC has experience with paper production technology and could be a market leader throughout the world. Pulp & paper technology puts Canada in a position to be one of the largest pulp & paper producers & exporters in the world, with the possibility to become very rich, a very un-Canadian idea, however, The Pulp & Paper industry, is a low carbon industry.  Carbon in our atmosphere is called Carbon Dioxide, which many people attribute to climate change. By sequestering carbon into trees, and keeping that carbon in solid carbon form, that is, not burning it, but by turning it into pulp and paper, as well as furniture, shelter, garden trellises & structures, books, etc., we bring down the global carbon balance closer to 350ppm,  a place where our storms subside, and our climate and biosphere may return to normal, pre-industry levels of atmospheric carbon,  recreating our natural ozone layer. The Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve is a great example of sinking carbon indefinitely.

Clive Justice is Landscape Architect, Urban Planner & Garden Historian. He lives and works in Vancouver BC.

Jill Whitelaw is a Graphic Designer & Book Publisher with BC Bigleaf Maple Books. She is also a Permaculture Consultant & Educator living in East Vancouver.

Landscape photo can be found on flickr Thank you to tuchodi https://www.flickr.com/photos/tuchodi/3551991021

*links are found on the pdf /digital version for further info. See http://bcbigleafmaplebooks.ca
AModestProposalclj

A Garden for Life: Mary Greig & the Royston Rhododendrons by Judith Walker

Published this May 2015, was A Garden for Life: Mary Greig & the Royston Rhododendrons by Judith Walker.

cover-Mary-Greig2

In the summer of 1919, newlyweds Ted and Mary Greig motored from Portland to a small cottage by the ocean in Royston, on Vancouver Island. This became Mary’s home for the next 70 years of her life.

They began a garden, using local sandstone to build rock walls and seaweed and peat to build up the soil. The twins were born in 1920 and two more children by 1925. It was a lean time for the young family.

The Greigs love of the mountains, native plants and gardens led them to meet some extraordinary people, including George and Suzanne Simpson of Cowichan Lake. When the Simpsons suggested that the Greigs purchase all the stock of the Simpson’s alpine and rare plant nursery, the Greigs were astonished- “to think they thought we could manage to keep things alive”.

But manage they did. And when alpines proved a challenge on the wet west coast, Mary quickly focused on the rhododendrons which thrived in the cool summers and the moist winters. The species rhododendrons caught Mary’s attention with their infinite variety of leaves, colours and forms. She proceeded to propagate only the best.

And a tiny nursery on BC’s coast caught the attention of the rhododendron world.

So although Mary is the focus of this story, there are many characters. One cannot appreciate Mary’s work without knowing of Kingdon-Ward’s expeditions, and one cannot fully appreciate a rhododendron flowering in August without following Ted and Mary through their nursery.

The old gate is still there- please, come in.

Canada West Landscape Architecture Book Launch

Canada West Landscape Architecture – 1888-1999

Canada West – Landscape Architecture first printing was 50 books in September 2014.

 photo 1

paradise

Canada West Landscape Architecture is a historical reference book – it’s huge and belongs in libraries and universities throughout western Canada. We printed 50 copies. Any of you who would like to give us $250 to give a copy in your name to your favorite LA Alma Matter or Library, we are offering a complimentary DVD of the book for your personal use and enjoyment.  Over half of the book is imagery from the Author’s own collection of photographs from Western Canada’s natural landscapes and designed works of art and gardens from western Canada’s founding plantspeople.

jekyll
Garden In Memory

This is our story – mostly our firm Justice  Webb & Vincent and our experiences and projects are well covered between these pages, with stories of the founding fathers of this movement: Frank Buck, David Douglas, Isabella Preston, Frank Skinner, Henry Marshall, George Fraser, Ed Lohbrunner, Mary Greig and more are woven throughout the text and photographs, and will be of specific interest to members of the BCSLA, AALA, SALA, MALA & NWTALA. Appendix 4 includes a complete plant list for the Tundra.

Both Harry Webb and John Vincent were artists as well, their artwork is also included. John Vincent currently lives in Parksville. More from Harry Webb can be found through his daughter Adrienne Brown’s 2014 book: Art in the Age of Jazz: Harry Webb and Jessie Webb by Adrienne Brown. Her book is being released and shown Sept 16th to Dec 6th, 2014 :: Exhibition at the West Vancouver Museum.

Clive’s book launch for Canada West Landscape Architecture 1888-1999  will be held in January or February 2015.

patter

sask

coverphoto

CW-LA Job Numbers Appendix

wilbanks

Dr. Clive Justice’s work is documented in this appendix, detailing jobs throughout his career. His firms were the first of their kind and so they got many of the jobs around town. This list offers a look at sites throughout the city of Vancouver, Richmond, and beyond.

Enjoy

http://bcbigleafmaplebooks.ca/blog/Appendixjobnos.pdf

Keshab Receives ARS Pioneer Award 2006

ImagePictured in the middle is Keshab Pradhan, retired Chief Secretary and Chief Forester of India’s smallest Himalayan mountain State, Sikkim, at the bottom Streetside of Ken Gibson’s garden in the Village of Tofino, on Vanisle’s West Coast. Gibson on left, Justice on right.Ken’s  and wife Dorothy’s home crowns the top of the hill surrounded by hundreds of hybrid and species rhodos like the size and colours to those pictured. It happens like this  during April and May  every spring !

Keshab Pradhan and his wife Shanti (not pictured) were on a 2006 visit to BC’s American Rhododendron Society (ARS) District I, Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland ARS Chapters prior to his being presented with the ARS Pioneer award at award at  the Societies Annual Meeting held in Victoria  He joins a select group of amateur & professional nursery and plantsmen whose passion was growing and breeding the genus rhododendrons as garden and landscape plants. Previous Pioneer Award winners were Britt Smith of the Tacoma Chapter and posthumously to George Fraser Rhododendron nurseryman in the 1920s& 30s in Village of  Ucluelet down Vanisles West Coast from the Gibson Garden inTofino. In those days there was no road the West coast. Day trippers used used to come up from Victoria on the  steamer Maquinna on her weekly voyages to Ucluelet to buy his hybrid, azalea fraseri and Waterer hybrids shipped in from England.. It was the very first nursery in the Province to markert Rhododendrons and Azaleas.

Pradan , President of Sikkim’s J. D. Hooker Chapter of the ARS was honoured for his pioneer work in recognizing and classifying Rhododendrons as trees in Sikkim and creating sanctuaries for Rhododendrons in forest areas throughout this mountainous state in northeast India, where the states of West Bengal, Nepal on the west, with the Kingdom of Bhutan on the east & in the north; Tibet, claimed by China.

The reason why the Sikkim ARS Chapter is titled the JD Hooker Chapter is that Joseph Dalton Hooker was son of William Jackson Hooker, Director of Kew Gardens the premier world’s depository of plants from 1820 until JD succeeded him as Head of Kew 1868.  Previous to this, Hooker senior had taught Botany at the University of Glasgow in Scotland where he qualified his son Dalton and others (David Douglas, John Scouler & William Fraser Tolmie) as Surgeon-Botanists or Surgeon Naturalists for the Navy of King George III.  Those men trained to serve as surgeons in times of war, especially the Napoleonic Wars with France from 1898-1815 and as  Botanists/Naturalists in times of peace.  This was especially true after 1815, when  the sailing ships of the English navy were given the tasks of charting the world’s as yet unmapped coastlines.

JD’s Dad secured a position for him on the Navy ship Endeavour, charting and botanizing the Antarctic islands, peninsulas & continent. He next tackled the Indian subcontinent by mapping and botanizing in Eastern India from Calcutta to Tibet by way of Bengal, Daarjeeling, Assam and Sikkim . While in Sikkim he discovered, described ,sending seed back to his father at Kew, 28 Rhododendron species of the 32 found in this alpine Himalayan kingdom. In 1848, before colour photography Hooker senior commissioned a double elephant size (coffee table) book with full page full colour stone lithographs of the 28 Sikkim Rhododendrons that Hooker Junior described and sketched. in the field.  The Hookers were both Knighted by Queen Victoria for their work.

JDH hired plenty of ‘coolies’for his collecting safaris, sat times there were 80 in his entourage: collectors, dryers, cooks guards & porters. He alone  wrote his discoveries up in his Journal (2 volumes). The fact that he was forbidden by the Sikkim king from even being in the country. He and is English Political liason Officer, Campbell were captured and imprisoned for 6 months, at last being only released to his friends in Daarjeeling still arrogant and hard done by, on Christmas eve 1850.

This was forgotten 125 years later when the Chapter was formed. One dark night in a rest house at Sandakpu(12000′ ) were Sikkim, Nepal and West Bengal meet , we were stranded at the top overnight with no lights, no food and no kit.  14 of us sat on the floor with our backs to the three walls of a back room with a smoky fire of on the fourth . It had a hole in the wall fireplace with recently cut rhodo grande tree limbs sputtering giving off little flame and less heat .  It was cold.  We passed around a bottle of Jack Daniels ‘Old No 7 Tennessee whisky singing songs and telling stories. Jack Daniels became our First JD Hooker Chapter Member. Our kits food, guides and carriers arrived in the morning to begin the first trek by ARS members . There were 2 Canadians on the trek the rest were from Seattle & Tacoma.  One of those Canadians is pictured on the Photo above.