Category Archives: canada west

A Modest Proposal

A Modest Proposal
To Use the Site C De-Treed Areas of the Peace River Lands
for Silviculture and Permanent Agriculture

by Clive Justice & Jill Whitelaw

Image/Tuchodi

Site C is now cleared and graded, lying fallow, and awaiting development proposals from sustainable environmental believers & practitioners with vision and initiative. Greenpeace, Sierra Club BC, the Wilderness Committee & the David Suzuki Foundation are all globally active, locally founded, environmental protection offices in our Province. BC is now working together across political party lines with the Green-NDP Coalition to support appropriate eco-sustainable options for our energy.  Let it continue. One suggestion is autumn seeding in Fall 2017, and before the first snowfall with Helio-hydro seeding of winter hardy rye grass, Lolium perenne var. ‘Olds, alta’,  followed in the spring, planting Poplars, Populus trichocarpa in the forest, in swales, woodlots, clumps, thickets along the valley bottom and hillsides stands.

What if the pulp were then sent through a pipeline, perhaps even an existing or approved one, through an extended network of woodchip-slurry pipes? What if it were powered by wind generators or solar all the way along?

These Cottonwood hybrids are selected because the wood fibre makes a long-staple fibre suitable for newsprint, copy, kraft & fine papers, books, periodicals, cartons, packaging products, paper towels, tissues & toilet paper. One in particular, the Crown Zee Tacoma Cottonwood Poplar tree Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray is one of the best.  Another hybrid with very white wood can be manufactured into white paper using little or no bleach.

The BC Society of Landscape Architects / BCSLA’s land management, professional commitment that entails a full understanding of each of the provinces tree species palette [species of conifer & deciduous]: specifications for arrangement of stands of trees for forests, copses,  3, 5 or 7 tree clumps, lone tree landscapes,  and edges. The lone tree, for example: fall colour, density of colour, size, scale, how it fits into the landscape, into the meadow.  Or,  for example, initial planting of a temporary landscape of introduced different Populus species which will be harvested and made into pulp.

What if this Pipeline linked to the to existing operational processing mills, and even closed mills & new paper and pulp mills up and down the BC Coast & Islands: Prince Rupert, the new Kitimat mill,  the existing mills in New Westminister Nanaimo, the Albernis, Crofton Cambell River; and mills closed, mothballed or contemplated in process of being built or planned, throughout Pacific Northwest, our neighbours to the South: the mills in Everett, Tacoma, Idaho, Portland, etc.? A Pulp and Paper Pipeline for a myriad of Paper Products, serving not only our country,  Canada, but also the rest of the world with our forest resources, technology & experience. Canada has more of this resource than any other part of the world.

We were so distracted by gas, drilling, fracking, LNG, bitumen, and extracting oil and gas from our Canadian prairie, Arctic & subarctic surface lands ruining, destroying & laying waste to our Northern Tundra surface landscape. We should have been ashamed but instead we buried them! Canadians ‘shilly-shally’ on this issue. We want to trust our government to make the right choices, to face up to the fact that fossil fuels, like oil, are carcinogenic and non-renewable. The future of our world ought to remain pristine, natural and beautiful for 7 generations. We have a lot of bio-remediation to get this world back in shape after the promise of the ‘American Dream’.

Each region has its own micro climate, species and visual landscape. What is needed is an Aesthetic, Education and Management Group for deliberating and guiding reforestation and sustainable harvesting.  The BCSLA working group with the region’s tree and resource experts, the BC Forestry Service (BCFS), UBC Silviculture, SFU Resource & Environmental Management, local Agronomists, Indigenous Land Management and Permaculture farmers to set planting standards for spacing and species, for the planting and maintaining of Pulp Tree Forests, clear-cuts, other forests, copses and woodlots, thickets and hedgerows, lone tree aesthetic landscapes, plantings by the rivers, and pasture feeding lands for wildlife.

A great practice would be to modify the arable Peace River Valley into grass hillsides, and rolling slopes with a series of berms and swales along contours, where trees are planted. Debris such as leaves collect in the swales to support the tree crops, as well as rainfall or water released from small earth dams or bodies of water above and channeled into them. This aids retaining the Beauty of our Landscape by inter-cropping our fast growing trees with nitrogen fixing trees and plants, cold-hardy and useful vegetation, cash crops, native plants,  edge and companion plants for pest management, wildlife foraging, flowers for bees, creating a poly-culture rather than a mono-culture, all eventually successioned by replanting a natural selection of Canadian trees of that region.

This land has been disrupted, and needs to regain biodiversity and balance. Mature forests have mushrooms and shade loving groundcovers, shurbs and native wildflowers under the tree canopy. The more mature the forest the more there is in it.  Paul Stamet’s has a product called the LifeBox, a box filled with our Pacific Northwest trees as well as mushroom spores.  Stamets, from Oregon, also migrates through this region and may even help us design a very local LifeBox. Trees and mushrooms make up the bottom most and top most elements of a forest. In between are the other layers of the forest, such as shrubs and vines, which if they were native edibles such as small berries, native potatoes like plants which could be highly productive for edible species and wild-crafting the commons and allowing even more opportunity for a balanced economy for all Canadians.

There is a need for improvement throughout the Peace Valley lands & unflooded bottom lands from just below the Site 2 dam structure to just below the site C area with the reservoir area, and the surrounding areas to the natural boundary at the BC-Alberta boundary. The top water line to the lower water line we can’t landscape, but all of the lands around and above, that will be these gardens. Plant on cleared areas or in valleys on rolling terrain in plantations or in designated large farm areas.

Different ornamental gardens could be added. For celebrating Canada’s Confederation of 150 years,  for example, honouring pioneers, explorers, settlers and natives could include Landscape Heritage gardens from England’s settlers, the Garden in Memory (CWLA, CLJ Chapter 11, 2013.) which they brought to Canada to live in this harsh landscape as pioneers, learning from Canada’s landscape and plants and first peoples to survive.  To celebrate this vast tract of land in good commemorate & try to reflect the made improvements. Capability Brown, was an English landscape architect. He is remembered as “the last of the great English 18th century artists to be accorded his due”, and “England’s greatest gardener”. He designed over 170 parks, many of which still endure. He was nicknamed “Capability” because he would tell his clients that their property had “capability” for improvement.” (wiki) Each park farm or garden to contain heritage plants, such as trees, flowers and ornamentals developed by Canadian horticulturists, Frank Skinner of Dropmore, Manitoba for roses and Lilacs, and Isabella Preston of Dominion Agriculture for Lilacs and Lillies, and the ornamental Crabapples, Malus niedzwetzkyana hybrids.

With the onset of computer technology everybody thought we were going to a paperless society, when in fact we could become the greatest paper, wood, fibre society ever.  Look around, there are more newspapers than ever before, we still use and read books, give birthday cards, send and receive mail, ship locally and  in cardboard boxes, ad infinitum. Canada, especially BC has experience with paper production technology and could be a market leader throughout the world. Pulp & paper technology puts Canada in a position to be one of the largest pulp & paper producers & exporters in the world, with the possibility to become very rich, a very un-Canadian idea, however, The Pulp & Paper industry, is a low carbon industry.  Carbon in our atmosphere is called Carbon Dioxide, which many people attribute to climate change. By sequestering carbon into trees, and keeping that carbon in solid carbon form, that is, not burning it, but by turning it into pulp and paper, as well as furniture, shelter, garden trellises & structures, books, etc., we bring down the global carbon balance closer to 350ppm,  a place where our storms subside, and our climate and biosphere may return to normal, pre-industry levels of atmospheric carbon,  recreating our natural ozone layer. The Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve is a great example of sinking carbon indefinitely.

Clive Justice is Landscape Architect, Urban Planner & Garden Historian. He lives and works in Vancouver BC.

Jill Whitelaw is a Graphic Designer & Book Publisher with BC Bigleaf Maple Books. She is also a Permaculture Consultant & Educator living in East Vancouver.

Landscape photo can be found on flickr Thank you to tuchodi https://www.flickr.com/photos/tuchodi/3551991021

*links are found on the pdf /digital version for further info. See http://bcbigleafmaplebooks.ca
AModestProposalclj

Patrick Neill, Doyen of Scottish Horticulture

An Esoteric Essay by Clive Justice, PhD, FCSLA
Landscape and Plant Historian

Forbes Robertson does a right fine job of bringing to the light of day and presenting Patrick Neill’s horticultural works, writings and travels that occurred during the closing and immediate post war decades of the Napoleonic Wars. This period from the turn of the century to end of the war, (1800 to 1815) has unfortunately been lumped in with the Victorian era. When Victoria came to the throne in 1837 it was the rebirth of gardening and horticultural practices that helped build the British Empire. What had gone on horticulturally prior to her ascendency had been building during the wars through the efforts of Sir Joseph Banks. When Banks died in 1820, he left a legacy of exotic plant discoveries the first with his own plant findings on the Capt Cook voyage to the Antipodes. The Scottish Surgeon-botanists, John Houston with his Caribbean and Southern US plant discoveries, and introductions of Archibald Menzies’ plant discoveries with Capt Vancouver in the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands, New Zealand and North America’s North Pacific Coast.

Banks charge to Sir William Jackson Hooker to send out plant collectors to find new plants for Queen Charlotte’s garden at Kew [to make it into the world’s greatest garden and the repository for the world’s plants both living and dead.] It is no wonder that Patrick Neill’s work lay unpublished in the university of Edinburgh with rival University of Glasgow’s William Joseph Hooker at then Kew’s helm and busy writing his classic Flora Boreali-Americana. This description of the plants of Northern Parts of North America would be made up largely from these plant collections made by the ex-navy surgeon-botanists /naturalists Hooker had trained for the navy at the university of Glasgow. Robertson’s complaint that Patrick Neill’s horticultural writings and other works were not published in his lifetime and some are now lost, seems to pale a bit in comparison to the work two of his contemporary Lothian plantsmen: Navy Surgeon- naturalist Dr John Richardson who was a member of the Wernerian Natural History Society in Edinburgh which Patrick Neill had founded and was also a keen gardener so they must have known each other. Richardson was on the first Arctic overland Expedition under Captain Franklin, 1820-22 and the second, also overland down the Mckenzie River in 1825-27 but fortunately when Franklin departed on the ill-fated voyage by ship to find the Northwest Passage, Richardson was not with them. He led the second search for Franklin overland with John Rae in 1848-51.

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David Douglas met Richardson at Cumberland House at the time of early summer of 1823, they were preparing for the voyage home after returning from the First Franklin expedition. David Douglas made by far the largest contribution to botany through his plant discoveries and seed introductions; Richardson to natural history, ecology, geology and zoology. Their contributions and discoveries (particularly those of David Douglas) helped Hooker to assemble and publish his Flora Boreali-Americana, in 1840. Neither of their Journals were published in their lifetimes. Journal kept by David Douglas 1823-1827, not until 1914, by the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) and John Richardson, not until 1984 with C. Stuart Houston’s, Arctic Ordeal, The Journal of John Richardson. Surgeon-Naturalist with Franklin 1820-1822.

On a personal note, in the 1980s while on an American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboretums (AABGA) tour, hosted by the Devonian Botanical Gardens of Edmonton, Alberta, one of our tour guides talking about the prairie ecology brought up the name of a little prairie animal called Richardson’s Squirrel. Naively not knowing, I asked, who was Richardson? Thinking of plant names bearing the names of their finders like Douglas-fir not the discoverer Archibald Menzies but the introducer, David Douglas (also discoverer of many prairie grasslands plants). Not one member of the tour group or the tour guides could tell us who Richardson was. This prompted me to consult David Douglas’ Journal as I remembered his mention of meeting a John Richardson whom he much admired at some place during his botanizing and collection as gentleman guest of the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC)North American territories.

David Douglas (1788-1834) not yet thirty had been collecting in HBC’s New Caledonia, territory from Fort George on the Fraser in the north to Klamath Falls in the South from his base at HBC Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River. Working from the fort he botanized extensively in northern New Caledonia (BC), lost all his collection when his canoe overturned shooting the Fraser River rapids, south of Fort George. His collections in future BC coastal areas, Washington, Oregon, and northern Spanish California made it home in company ships in sealed tin boxes. These were provided by the HBC on the instructions from the newly formed London, later RHS secretary, Joseph Sabine.

Douglas’ botanizing collections with the returning fur brigade up the Columbia and over the Athabaska Pass down the River of the same name to Jasper House where they joined the northern northwest fur brigade out of Fort George. The combined brigades continuing down the Slave to Fort Vermillion to collect the furs from the western Arctic and return back up with all the furs to Edmonton House, on the North Saskatchewan River. Douglas and a small party left the fur Brigade to Portage overland by horseback over the thawing wetlands that lie between the Peace and Fort Edmonton. Here Douglas sent his botanical collection to date in a sealed tin box onto Vancouver for shipment back to London. The box arrived at the London LRS before Douglas did.

His adventures with the combined fur brigade flotilla in York boats, canoes and pole barges on the North Saskatchewan were not all botanizing. On the Upland Plains before Fort Carleton, the hunting party from the brigade stampeded the herd of bison they were hunting. One of the party, his friend Mr F. McDonald was found badly gored and lay bleeding from his left thigh, broken ribs, dislocated wrist and severe bruising.

From Douglas’ Journal, Pg74 “ Poor Mr. McDonald was so placed for two and a half hours bleeding and at the point of death, and that under cloud of night, which gave us scarcely any opportunity of rescuing, for the animal was within a few paces and we were fearful to fire lest a shot should take him. By the activity of Mr Harriott and my assistance he was saved. I bound up the wounds and afforded all the assistance a small medicine chest and my slender knowledge could suggest. We passed hastily on, in hope of finding Dr Richardson, but on our arrival found the doctor had gone to Cumberland House. At Carleton House I had the pleasure to meet Mr Drummond, of Captain Franklin’s party, who spent the greater part of his time in the Rocky Mountains, contiguous to the sources of the Rivers Athabaska and Columbia.

Douglas was wary of the older Drummond as he was infringing on Douglas’ territory. His journal continues: Mr. Drummond had a princely collection. I had intended to cross the plain from this place (Carleton House) to Swan and Red Rivers, but from the hostile disposition of the Stone Indians deemed unsafe. [largely a figment of Douglas’ fear of the unknown] I descended [the Saskatchewan River] to Cumberland house, and found there Dr Richardson, who kindly showed me parts of the princely collection of natural history made during the expedition. This part of the of the country has been well described in the former narrative of Captain (now Sir John) Franklin that it leaves me no room; I shall therefore only notice my stages.

Douglas was fully aware of the rigid British hierarchical system in place in Britain at the time as he was younger and a better Botanist than the other two older men, Drummond and Richardson, but was low man on the totem pole in the hierarchy and not even on it in regard to the British Navy order. Douglas was also paranoid about keeping his plant discoveries secret and was bent on besting others in plant collecting. So he took off south via Lake Winnipeg to the Red and Assinaboine Rivers in Lord Selkirk’s settlement. He botanized along the lake’s west side getting there, all through the settlement, and all the way back down the lake on the east side to Fort York and onto the Nelson River and down to Hudson’s Bay where he took the HBC supply ship back to England. The botanical collection from his botanizing from Fort Edmonton along the Saskatchewan River to Hudson’s Bay and the Manitoba lakes and along the Rivers in the Selkirk settlement consisted of 288 species many of which were new to me, . . . and had I stayed with Mr Drummond and Dr Richardson on the Saskatchewan, these would have been omitted. Douglas had won a round for his patron Sir William Hooker and Kew Gardens.

And yes, the ground squirrel. There are four species of them in the Arctic namely: Parry’s, Franklin’s, Richardson’s and the Thirteen-lined [striped] ground squirrel in the Genus: Spermophilos Parryi, S. Franklinii, S. Richardsonii, and S. tridecemlineatus. We know them today as Marmots. Why another British Navy Captain got his name attached to the Arctic marmots scientific name is another story too long to tell here. All four are known to dig tunnels in the Canadian Arctic tundra.

Talking about tunnels and tunnellings brings up horticulturist Patrick Neill’s home place ‘Canon Mills’ in the Midlothian hills south east of Edinburgh. The Leith /Newhaven Railway Company wanted to tunnel a rail line under his garden. Neill fought it through the Edinburgh Court for many years but finally lost out to the Railway. The tunnel is probably still in use but the garden that was above the Railway Tunnel is probably long gone.

The conversation continued around this subject and we came to something completely different: They say there is a connection between everything in nature. so here goes ! The surgeon botanist connection brings about an interesting read. There were other accounts of their healing works on the journey beside the one relate above with the Bison, and also some intriguing stories within these adventures:

It all started with a quote from Arctic Ordeal (the Journal of John Richardson, Surgeon-Naturalist with Franklin, 1820-1822, Editor, C. Stuart Houston, Illustrator, Albert Hochbaum, 1984, McGill University Press, Kingston and Montreal) Chapter 8 Rescue and Recovery-Section Commentary, Indexed as Breastfeeding by Males, pgs 187-8 “Richardson with great medical interest reported Wentzel’s story of the Chipewyan Indian man who had raised his infant after his wife had died in childbirth, feeding the infant meatbroth (perhaps one of the earliest records of meat based formula) and suckling it successfully at his breast. The editor continues Macleod and Glover, in Franklin’s first expedition, may not be justified in claiming that Richardson was a gullible victim of a Wentzel hoax (it wasn’t). Editor Stuart Houston continues. We now know that males as well as females, have the hormone prolactin and can produce milk (inappropriate galactorrhea or inappropriate lactation are the technical terms). In some parts of Africa, it is common for grandmothers, up to 50 years of age to put their grandchild to the breast.1 There are a few well documented cases of men successfully nursing infants, including that of a negro male wet nurse who was displayed before a medical class in Maryland in 1827; milk from the male breast is nourishing. (1. Robert Greenblatt Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality 1972; see also Cecil Slome 1956; 2. John Knott 1907 and R.C. Creasy, JAMA vol.58, 1912; and Alexander Von Humboldt of the electric eel and the Humboldt current, in Travels and Researches of Baron Humboldt, 1833, p79

Robertson, Forbes W. , Patrick Neill , 1776–1851: Doyen of Scottish Horticulture, 2011, Whittles Publishing Ltd. Dunbeath, Caithness KW6 6EG, Scotland, UK

For a different perspective see REVIEW BY SALLY EVANS on the same book.

A Garden for Life: Mary Greig & the Royston Rhododendrons by Judith Walker

Published this May 2015, was A Garden for Life: Mary Greig & the Royston Rhododendrons by Judith Walker.

cover-Mary-Greig2

In the summer of 1919, newlyweds Ted and Mary Greig motored from Portland to a small cottage by the ocean in Royston, on Vancouver Island. This became Mary’s home for the next 70 years of her life.

They began a garden, using local sandstone to build rock walls and seaweed and peat to build up the soil. The twins were born in 1920 and two more children by 1925. It was a lean time for the young family.

The Greigs love of the mountains, native plants and gardens led them to meet some extraordinary people, including George and Suzanne Simpson of Cowichan Lake. When the Simpsons suggested that the Greigs purchase all the stock of the Simpson’s alpine and rare plant nursery, the Greigs were astonished- “to think they thought we could manage to keep things alive”.

But manage they did. And when alpines proved a challenge on the wet west coast, Mary quickly focused on the rhododendrons which thrived in the cool summers and the moist winters. The species rhododendrons caught Mary’s attention with their infinite variety of leaves, colours and forms. She proceeded to propagate only the best.

And a tiny nursery on BC’s coast caught the attention of the rhododendron world.

So although Mary is the focus of this story, there are many characters. One cannot appreciate Mary’s work without knowing of Kingdon-Ward’s expeditions, and one cannot fully appreciate a rhododendron flowering in August without following Ted and Mary through their nursery.

The old gate is still there- please, come in.

Canada West Landscape Architecture Book Launch

Canada West Landscape Architecture – 1888-1999

Canada West – Landscape Architecture first printing was 50 books in September 2014.

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Canada West Landscape Architecture is a historical reference book – it’s huge and belongs in libraries and universities throughout western Canada. We printed 50 copies. Any of you who would like to give us $250 to give a copy in your name to your favorite LA Alma Matter or Library, we are offering a complimentary DVD of the book for your personal use and enjoyment.  Over half of the book is imagery from the Author’s own collection of photographs from Western Canada’s natural landscapes and designed works of art and gardens from western Canada’s founding plantspeople.

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Garden In Memory

This is our story – mostly our firm Justice  Webb & Vincent and our experiences and projects are well covered between these pages, with stories of the founding fathers of this movement: Frank Buck, David Douglas, Isabella Preston, Frank Skinner, Henry Marshall, George Fraser, Ed Lohbrunner, Mary Greig and more are woven throughout the text and photographs, and will be of specific interest to members of the BCSLA, AALA, SALA, MALA & NWTALA. Appendix 4 includes a complete plant list for the Tundra.

Both Harry Webb and John Vincent were artists as well, their artwork is also included. John Vincent currently lives in Parksville. More from Harry Webb can be found through his daughter Adrienne Brown’s 2014 book: Art in the Age of Jazz: Harry Webb and Jessie Webb by Adrienne Brown. Her book is being released and shown Sept 16th to Dec 6th, 2014 :: Exhibition at the West Vancouver Museum.

Clive’s book launch for Canada West Landscape Architecture 1888-1999  will be held in January or February 2015.

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CW-LA Job Numbers Appendix

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Dr. Clive Justice’s work is documented in this appendix, detailing jobs throughout his career. His firms were the first of their kind and so they got many of the jobs around town. This list offers a look at sites throughout the city of Vancouver, Richmond, and beyond.

Enjoy

http://bcbigleafmaplebooks.ca/blog/Appendixjobnos.pdf

The Three Legacies of Frank Ebenezer Buck, Professor of Horticulture, UBC

Frank Buck KathleenDedication of the Frank Buck memorial garden fronting the library 1946  Frank & wife Kathleen at UBC as Dean of Agriculture and Chancellor present at the awards.

excerpt: The Move to the West: UBC and Point Grey
from: The Three Landscape Legacies of Frank Ebenezer Buck:
the Record and Personal Encounters
by Clive L. Justice PhD FCSLA LmBCSLA,
Plant and Garden Historian
Vancouver, BC, Canada

for full aricle, visit: Frank Buck Legacy Full Article

The Move to the West: UBC and Point Grey
Dr. Leonard Klinck, who had been Dean of Agriculture since 1914,
became UBC President in 1919 after the death of the university’s first President, Dr. Frank Wesbrook. In 1916 Dean Klinck appointed Dr. F. M. Clements to lead the Department of Horticulture. Klinck and

Clements had been classmates at Macdonald College (part of McGill University) and were close friends with Buck. After World War 1 they began a search for someone to undertake the daunting task of landscaping the new campus, “a logged-off area replete with stumps, boulders and blasted craters.” Frank Buck was selected for the job and was appointed Assistant Professor of Ornamental Horticulture in 1920.

The first building on the Point Grey campus, the Science Building,
was a concrete shell in a field of stumps. It was completed with land
-scaping in time for the official campus opening in 1925. It and the four storey building that became the University Library (later named main Library) were the only two campus buildings to be faced with local granite quarried from Haddington Island in the Johnstone Strait (Editor’s note: UBC archives report that Nelson Island, near Pender Harbour was the source, see article ) This light grey, black flecked, extremely hard stone was selected by the architects, Sharp and Thompson and warmly approved in a 1913 report by the three member oversight committee (engineering professors Laird from Pennsylvania and Darley from McGill, and English landscape architect and town planning consultant, Thomas Mawson). It was Mawson who suggested the cheap method for getting the stone to the campus, by shipping it to a jetty at the base of Point Grey, and then by cable railway up the 300 ft. high bluffs to the campus. Before WWI, the use of local stone would have been cheap and feasible, but after the war, the cost became impossible. All campus buildings until after the end of WWII, especially the so-called temporary buildings constructed in the 1920s and 30s, were clad with what was euphemistically called ‘California Stucco’.
In 1912 the logged lands of the Burrard Peninsula between the railway line bordering the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) lands on the
east and the University Endowment Lands including the campus land
at Point Grey to the west, were part of the Municipality of Point Grey.
Point Grey and South Vancouver were both amalgamated with Van

-couver in 1929. When Buck arrived, Point Grey Municipality was also experiencing the renewed growth that had been stopped during WWI. New streets and houses began to appear in scattered subdivisions with fanciful old-country names that had been created between 1900 and 1914 to lure the influx of UK immigrants to settle in Vancouver’s suburbs. Buck and his family found a home in Kerrisdale, the area from the CPR tracks between West 33rd and 57th Avenues west to Macdonald Street.

The Point Grey Municipal Hall in Kerrisdale, built in 1912, was on the west side of the CPR tracks and north of the CPR nursery. The nursery grew and supplied trees for the beautification of streets, medians and boulevards in the subdivisions, and also provided landscape materials for the gardens of the posh prewar houses built in the company’s adjoining Shaughnessy Heights. The treed medians on Osler Street and Angus Drive radiated from a centrepiece park, the oval ‘round about’ called the Crescent. The greenhouses supplied flowers for the downtown CPR hotel on Granville Street, the dining cars of the transcontinental trains, which departed Vancouver every day for Toronto and Montreal, and the Empress ships sailing monthly for Asian Pacific ports such as Yokohama and Shanghai. The nursery site was sold to the Vancouver School Board in the mid 1920s for construction of Point Grey Secondary School, designed in the Gothic Revival Collegiate style by architects, Townley and Matheson, and opened in 1929. A row of very large trees remains on the nursery site, including several Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven), Quercus rubra (northern red oak), Platanus × hispanica (London plane), and one the very few large Sequoia sempervirens (California coast redwood)
growing in the area.

The elected officials enthusiastically promoted municipal growth and
development in direct competition with Vancouver. They developed
effective zoning controls and guidance to ensure planned and orderly
development and the continued exclusiveness of the municipality as a place of residence for white, middle class professional and semi pro
-fessional families preferably from the British Isles. In 1925, the BC
Town Planning Act gave cities and municipal councils the authority to
prepare an official town plan, set up advisory town planning commissions, and to guide the physical development of a municipality. In 1923, Point Grey had passed a local bylaw that said much the same thing and was the first municipality in the Dominion to have an appointed town planning commission. Landscape architect Frank Buck and architect, George Thornton Sharp both served on the commission from 1923 until amalgamation with Vancouver in 1929. Clearly, they had much to do with the orderly development of their
community.

Large parts of Buck’s legacy are the street tree plantings he
initiated in the 1920s: the avenue of Ulmus americana (American elm–his favourite tree) down West 22nd. Avenue from Dunbar Street; northern red oaks along 8th Avenue at the edge of Point Grey Park and on Discovery Street; the venerable London planes lining the diversion of West 8th Avenue into West 9th west of Alma; and the ‘mile’ of gold avenue of tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and catalpa (Figure 2)(primarily Catalpa speciosa mixed with C. bignonioides) east from Alma along West 10th to Kitsilano High School, with their summer blossoms and striking yellow fall colour. Clearly these trees were planted prior to the Kitsilano Diversion that linked Point Grey’s 10th Avenue into Vancouver’s West 12th at Macdonald Street. Other avenues of elms and maples still flourish throughout the Dunbar, Point Grey, Arbutus and Kerrisdale districts. The elms escaped the devastation caused by Dutch elm disease elsewhere in North America, and the Discovery Street park viewpoint remains the best overlook view across English Bay to the downtown and
Stanley Park.

Perhaps Frank Buck’s greatest legacy for Vancouver came from his 1923 appointment by Point Grey Reeve, G. A. Walkem as chairman of the Advisory Town Planning Commission, the first in Canada. One of the commission’s first concerns was the development, landscaping and beautification of public parks and recreation places in the municipality. They sought ideas and expertise of consultants, not from the ‘old country’ as had been the practice before the Great War, but from our neighbours to the south. Buck had probably read or heard about the ‘City Beautiful’ movement that originated in Chicago. It was a good place to start, so the commissioners invited the Chicago firm of Harland Bartholomew and Associates to present their ideas to the commission.Harland Bartholomew appeared before the Point Grey Town Planning Commission and members of Council on Friday July 27th 1923. He spoke on the “Five principal kinds of recreational facilities [that] should be provided in a district like Point Grey.” ‘Children’s Playgrounds’ were to be located on elementary school grounds, then ‘Playfields’ for older children were to be located within a one mile radius of each other. Recreational facilities (Neighbourhood Parks) should be one mile apart and designed for passive recreation with grass, trees, flowers and water (where possible). The recording secretary added a note that “Unfortunately Mr. Bartholomew was not shown the Maple Grove Park” although, at the time, the only water at Maple Grove was a very large, shallow, rock-lined kiddies’
wading pool.

The fourth principal recreational facility was the ‘Large Natural Park of 50 acres or more’, which retained natural features with informal landscape design. The fifth facility combined two elements: ‘Boulevards’, here referring to traditional tree lined streets, and ‘Pleasure Driveways’, a new concept that recognized the potential in the dawning age of the automobile. Bartholomew saw these landscaped median-divided streets as “connecting the large parks (and of themselves giving) a great recreational advantage to the city.” In 1928 when Bartholomew was commissioned by Vancouver to prepare plans to amalgamate Point Grey with the city, he enlarged and extended the concept of pleasure driveways by incorporating these parkways as part of the park and street system for Vancouver.

In 1928, the year before the amalgamation of Point Grey and Vancouver, Buck summed up the role that Point Grey had taken in the town planning movement for the City of Greater Vancouver. He wrote in his self-effacing manner: “It can be inadequately performed in the few pages assigned for that purpose,” then went on to give a good accounting of the contributions the Commission had made in planning the orderly development of the municipality and street beautification and indicated what was in hand but not completed. As an example, under the heading of “Recreation,” he wrote:

“The recommendations of the Commission relating to Parks and
Recreation were presented to the Council (Point Grey) in November
1928, and while as yet they have not been adopted in their entirety, a
number of the recommendations have been acted upon.”

Buck’s planning commission appointment ended with the dissolution of Point Grey, but in 1929 he was appointed to the newly constituted Advisory Town Planning Commission for the City of Vancouver. He served until 1951 and was chairman for two terms during the war, in 1939 and 1941. His volunteer service over some 30 years set a standard for the British Columbia Society of Landscape Architects (he was the society’s first honorary member) to offer themselves for volunteer professional service. The BCSLA code of professional practice now obligates member landscape architects to serve on today’s equivalent of advisory town planning commissions, the advisory design panels, that are now constituted in many of BC’s cities and districts. Buck’s legacy continues in the parkland landscape of lawn and trees, particularly flowering trees that weave broad ribbons of green landscape through our city, including West 16th Avenue, King Edward Boulevard, the Cambie Street Heritage Boulevard and the 100 Canada Centennial maples on Boundary Road.

Although Frank Buck wouldn’t qualify in today’s world to use the title “Landscape Architect” after his name, he was one, nonetheless.
He successfully combined professional garden design and plant arrangement with his teaching of courses in ornamental horticulture at UBC. His Ottawa experience and his knowledge of plants lead to many calls from his UBC faculty colleagues to provide advice and planning of their home gardens, which included President Klinck’s garden on Marine Drive in West Vancouver and the estate garden he designed for Dean of Agriculture Blythe Eagles and his wife Violet at Deer Lake in Burnaby, which included a large rockery and several pools. The City of Burnaby designated it as a Heritage Garden, and it is now being restored with the help of the BC Land Conservancy. Buck’s landscape legacy lives on in Burnaby as well as in Vancouver.

The June 1939 issue of the local magazine, The Garden Beautiful (it ceased publication in 1946), included an article by Buck, Potentialities of Our Coast Cities in which he wrote:

“Today the House alone no longer constitutes a Home,
a House must have a Garden…I attempt a brief discussion on the
opportunities offered by British Columbia cities on the Pacific Coast for building the ideal home of all types…The director of Kew Gardens said of Vancouver that this city had a climate which favoured, …the successful growth of Nature’s beautiful garden flowers. …And is it not true that the two chief cities of this province are especially favoured in this respect? Our Gardening friends may be found in their gardens for nine, sometimes ten months of the year. Where else in Canada
is this possible?”